Structural and hydrochemical assessment of some artesian springs within Share sheet 202 southwestern Nigeria


  • Hussain Olanrewaju Abubakar Department of Geophysics, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria
  • Ismail Oluwaseye Folorunso Department of Geophysics, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria
  • Hakeem Bolaji Olawumi Department of Geology Kwara state University Malete Ilorin, Nigeria



spring, Magnetic method, Hydrochemical parameters, Groundwater


The inhabitants of the study area have been faced with scarcity of clean water and sometimes suffer an outbreak of epidemics; the studied artesian springs are their major alternative source of water. Ten artesian springs were assessed using magnetic methods, and hydrochemical analysis. Total magnetic intensity data were processed to obtain the lineament distribution responsible for groundwater flow. Physicochemical parameters analyzed include pH, total hardness, electrical conductivity, and chemical parameters were analyzed. Results showed a magnetic anomaly range of -79.1 - 132.9 nT.  There is a series of lineaments, depicting fractures with a high concentration in the northern part. Three of the springs fall on Martins multiple fracture locations, around the high magnetic anomaly, indicating a highly promising location. The range of parameters are as follow; pH: 5.91 – 7.09, electrical conductivity: 30 - 450 µs/cm, total hardness: 20 - 136 mg/L, chloride: 10.01 - 56.0 mg/L. All these are within the World Water Quality Standard tolerable values, with exception of the iron content that is above 1 in all the locations, which falls above the permissible standards of 0.3. This could be associated with the contaminations from open defecations practiced in the area.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Ismail Oluwaseye Folorunso, Department of Geophysics, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria

Senior Lecturer, Department of Geophysics

Hakeem Bolaji Olawumi, Department of Geology Kwara state University Malete Ilorin, Nigeria

Lecturer II


Aderogba, KA (2005) Grand Water Development in Nigeria: A Case Study of Abeokuta – Ewekoro – Ifo – Ota - Agbara Axis in Ogun State, Nigeria. Int. J. Environ., 1-2(2): 51–68.

Mayers, LW (2005) Urban Water Supply: Handbook. New York: Culinary and Hospitality Industry Publication Services, pp. 102-113.

King M (2008) Bottled Water-Globa IndustryGuide-New Research Report on Companies and Markets. 4.

Naik PK, Awasthi AK, Mohan PC (2002) Spring in a headwater basin in the Decan Trap country of the Western Ghats, India. Hydrogeology Journal 10: 553-565.

Issa U. Alagbe SA, Garba ML (2014). Hydrogeology and Physico-Chemical Quality Assessment of Groundwater in Oke-Oyi Area and Environs, Kwara State, Nigeria. Journal of Environment and Earth Science, 4(18): 74-83.

Oyawoye MO (1970) The basement complex of Nigeria. In: Dessauvagie TFJ, Whiteman AJ (eds) African geology. Ibadan University Press, pp 66–102

Rahaman MA (1976). Review of the Basement Geology of Southwestern Nigeria. In: Geology of Nigeria, edited by C.A. Kogbe, Elizabethan Publ. Co., Lagos. pp. 41- 58.

Annor AE (1995) U-Pb zircon age for Kabba-Okene granodiorite gneiss: implication for Nigeria’s basement chronology. African Geoscience Review (2) 101-105.

Faure, G., Murtaugh, JG, & Montigny, R J (1968) Undefined. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 5(3), 555-560.

Nigeria Geological Survey Agency (NGSA) (2006). Geological and Mineral Resources Map of Kwara State, Nigeria.

World Health Organization (WHO) (2006). Guidelines for drinking water quality (3rd edition, published by World Health Organization, Geneva.

Nigeria Industrial Standard (NIS) (2007) Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality. Standard Organisation of Nigeria, Abuja.

Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ) (2007) Standard Organisation of Nigeria, Federal Ministry of Health.

Jeevanandam, M, Nagarajan, R, Manikandan, M, Senthilkumar, M, Srinivasalu, S Prasanna, MV (2012) Hydrogeochemistry and microbial contamination of groundwater from Lower Ponnaiyar Basin, Cuddalore District, Tamil Nadu, India. Environ Earth Sci 67, (3): 867–887.

Walker, G. R., Jolly, I. D and Cook, P. G., 1991. A new chloride leaching approach to the estimation of diffuse recharge following a change in land use. J Hydrol (128): 49–67.

Spears, D. A, and Reeves, M. J., 1975. ”The Influence of Superficial Deposits on Groundwater Quality in Vale York” Q. J. Engng. Geol. (8): 225-270.

Hem, DJ (1970) Study and Interpretation of Chemical Characteristics of Natural Water” Paper No. 1473. US Geological Survey. Washington DC.

US water system inc., (2022) Iron removal – How to remove iron from well water. Visited on 15-08-2022




How to Cite

ABUBAKAR, H. O.; FOLORUNSO, I. O.; OLAWUMI, H. B. Structural and hydrochemical assessment of some artesian springs within Share sheet 202 southwestern Nigeria. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, [S. l.], v. 15, n. 3, p. 213–229, 2023. DOI: 10.4314/jfas.1318. Disponível em: Acesso em: 21 jun. 2024.