• Muhammad Abubakar Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Physical Sciences. Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria.
  • Ibrahim Tajo Sirajo Department of pure and Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Physical Science, Bayero University Kano. PMB 3011 Kano-Nigeria



Heavy Metals; Physicochemical Parameters; Water; Mubi; Adamawa.


An attempt has been made to detriment the concentration level of some heavy metals and physicochemical parameters in hand-dug Well and Borehole water of Mubi local government area of Adamawa state with the aid of AAS, pH and conductivity meter. Water samples were collected from ten sites which serves as drinking water sources and subjected to analysis for determination of Pb, Cd and Cr. The result shows equal concentration of Pb (0.048±0.00 mg//L) detected from three samples, the concentration level of Cd and Cr ranges between 0.088 to 0.439 mg/L and 0.250±0.165 to 0.750±0.333 mg/L respectively, this indicate that all the three heavy metals detected were above the standard limit set by WHO and SON for drinking water. pH, conductivity and TDS values ranges between 6.94 to 8.14, 362 to 1063 µS/cm and 199.10 to 584.65 mg/L respectively, these were less than the value set by WHO.



Download data is not yet available.


Water. Drugbank online [Internet]. 2022 [cited 2022 Aug 05]. Available from

FAO/WHO. Expert committee food additives world health organization, Geneva. Technical Report series., 1997, 1(2): 20-26.

Resolution 64/292. The human right to water and sanitation. In: Sixty-fourth Session of the United Nations General Assembly, New York, 28 July 2010 Agenda Item 48 (A/RES/64/292). New York: United Nations; 2010.

Ahmad, M.K., Islam, S., Rahman, S., Haque, M.R., Islam, M.M. Heavy metals in water, sediment and some fishes of Buriganga River, Bangladesh., 2010; 4(1), 321–332.

Reza, R., Singh, G. Heavy metal contamination and its indexing approach for river water. 2010; 7, 785–792.

Mendie, U. The Nature of Water. In: The Theory and Practice of Clean Water Production for Domestic and Industrial Use, Lagos., 2005; pp: 1-21.

Marcovecchio, J.E., S.E. Botte and R.H. Freije. Heavy Metals, Major Metals, Trace Elements. In: Handbook of Water Analysis. L.M. Nollet, (Ed.). 2nd Edn. London: CRC Press., 2007; pp: 275-311.

Micheal, C.H. Heavy metals Encyclopedia of Earth National Council for Science and Environment (Washington DC)., 2010, Pp.318-345.

Dinis, M.D.L., Fiúza, L.I.A. Environmental Heavy Metal Pollution and Effects on Child Mental Development: Risk Assessment and Prevention Strategies, XX. Simeonov, L.I., Kochubovski, M.V., Simeonova, B.G. (Eds.), 2011; pp. 344.

Adnan, A. Taufeeq, A. Malik, E. Irafanullah, M. Masror, K. and Muhammad, A. Evaluation of industrial and city effluent quality using physiochemical and biological parameters, Electronic. 2010; 9(5):pp 931-939.

Ibeto, C., Okoye, C., Ofoefule, A., Uzodinma, E., 2012. Macro to Nano Spectroscopy. (Accessed 15 January 2018).

Martin, S. and Griswold, W. Human. Health Effects of Heavy Metals, Center for Hazardous Substance Research, Kansas State University. 2009; Issue 15 pp 1- 6.

Gardon, A.F. and Russey E. Lehrbuchder Amoganishen Chemie (Textbook of Inorganic Chemistry) Berlin Walter de Gruytw., 1976; Pp 27-94.

Flora, S. J. S., Flora, G. J. S. & Saxena, G. Environmental occurrence, health effects and management of lead poisoning. In: Cascas SB, Sordo J, editors. Lead: Chemistry, Analytical Aspects, Environmental Impacts and Health Effects. Netherlands., 2006, pp. 158–228.

WHO. Adverse Health Effects of heavy Metals in Children. Children’s Health and the Environment; WHO Training Package for the Health Sector, October., (2011a).

Berbier, O., Jacquillet, G., Tauc, M., Cougnon, M. and Poujeol, P. Effect of Heavy Metals Handlings on the Kidney, Nephron Physics. 2005; 99: 105-110.

Jaishankar, M., Tseten, T., Anbalagan, N., Mathew, B. B. & Beeregowda, K. N. Toxicity, mechanism and health effects of some heavy metals., 2014; 7(2), 60–72.

O’Brien, T., Xu, J. & Patierno, S. R. Effects of Glutathione on Chromium-induced DNA Crosslinking and DNA Polymerase Arrest., 2001; 1(2), 173-182.

NCPC. National Census and Population Commission. [Internet] 2018 [cited April 2018]. Available from

Latititude and Longitude of Administrative Region of Mubi [Internet] 2022 [cited Oct 2022]. Available from

Nekhavhambe, T.J., van Ree1, T., Fatoki, O.S. Determination and Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Rivers, Surface Runoff, and Sediments in and Around Thohoyandou, Limpopo Province, South Africa., 2014, 40, 415-424.

Ayenimo, J.G., Adeeyinwo, C.E., Amoo, I.A. Heavy Metal Pollutants in Warri River, Nigeria., 2005, 27, 43–50.

Joseph, A.A., Titilope J.J., Oguntimehin, I.I., Lajide, L. Delineation of heavy metals in soils from auto-mechanic workshops within Okitipupa, Ondo State, Nigeria., 2017, 4, 136–147.

S. A. M. Al Dahaan, Nadhir Al-Ansari and Sven Knutsson. Influence of Groundwater Hypothetical Salts on Electrical Conductivity Total Dissolved Solids. 2016; 8(11), pp 823-830.

SON, Standard Organization of Nigeria. (2007). Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality. Nigerian Industrial Standard (3rd ed., Vol. NIS 554), 5-30.

World Health Organization. Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality (4th ed). Press, Geneva, Switzerland. WHO 2011b.

Dawaki, M.U., Dikko, A.U., Noma, S.S., Aliyu, U.A. Pollution as a threat factor to urban food security in metropolitan Kano, Nigeria. Food Energy Security. 2013; 2, 20–33.

Adekunle, A.S., Oyekunle, J.A.O., Ojo, O.S., Maxakato, N.W., Olutona, G.O., Obisesan,O.R. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon levels of groundwater in Ife north local government area of Osun state, Nigeria. 2017; 4, 39–48.

Jeje, J.O., Oladepo, K.T. Assessment of Heavy Metals of Boreholes and Hand Dug Wells in Ife North Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria., 2014, 3, 209–214.

D. Borum and C.O. Abernathy. Human oral exposure to Inorganic arsenic in arsenic exposure and health. In chapped WR. Abnernathy CO, Cothern CR (Eds). Environmental geochemistry and health. Vol. 16. Northwood, UK: Science and Technology letters., 2004, Pp. 21 – 30.

Holting, B. and Coldewey, W.G. Hydrogeologie-Einfuhrung in die Allgemeine und Angewandte. Springer Spektrum, Berlin., 2012, p 439.

Atekwanaa, E.A., Atekwanaa, E.A., Roweb, R.S., Werkema Jr., D.D. and Legalld, F.D. The Relationship of Total Dissolved Solids Measurements to Bulk Electrical Conductivity in an Aquifer Contaminated with Hydrocarbon. 2004, 56, 281-294.

Hubert, E. and Wolkersdorfer, C. (2015) Establishing a Conversion Factor between Electrical Conductivity and Total Dissolved Solids in South Africa Mine Waters. 2015, 41, 490-500.

Yilmaz, E. and Koc, C. Physically and Chemically Evaluation for the Water Quality Criteria in a Farm on Akcay., 2014, 6, 63-67.

Saa A. E, Lanez T. Etude de la composition chimique du khôl traditionnel en vue de la détection du plomb par voltampérométrie, Master memory, 2011, ElOued university.




How to Cite

ABUBAKAR, M.; TAJO SIRAJO, I. . ASSESSMENT OF SOME HEAVY METALS AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN HAND-DUG WELL AND BOREHOLE WATER SAMPLE FROM MUBI SOUTH L.G.A ADAMAWA STATE. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, [S. l.], v. 15, n. 2, p. 147–159, 2023. DOI: 10.4314/jfas.1313. Disponível em: Acesso em: 21 jun. 2024.